Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Short Flax Fibers on the Permeability Behavior of a New Unidirectional Flax/Paper Composite (2024)

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A Review of Permeability and Flow Simulation for Liquid Composite Moulding of Plant Fibre Composites

christophe baley

Liquid composite moulding (LCM) of plant fibre composites has gained much attention for the development of structural biobased composites. To produce quality composites, better understanding of the resin impregnation process and flow behaviour in plant fibre reinforcements is vital. By reviewing the literature, we aim to identify key plant fibre reinforcement-specific factors that influence, if not govern, the mould filling stage during LCM of plant fibre composites. In particular, the differences in structure (physical and biochemical) for plant and synthetic fibres, their semi-products (i.e., yarns and rovings), and their mats and textiles are shown to have a perceptible effect on their compaction, in-plane permeability, and processing via LCM. In addition to examining the effects of dual-scale flow, resin absorption, (subsequent) fibre swelling, capillarity, and time-dependent saturated and unsaturated permeability that are specific to plant fibre reinforcements, we also review t...

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Journal of Materials Research and Technology

Impregnation behaviour of regenerated cellulose fabric Elium® composite: Experiment, simulation and analytical solution

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Roland Kádár

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Manufacturing of Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

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Nukman Yusoff

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Permeability characterization of braided fabrics made of hemp fibers

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Manufacturing of Coir Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Composites by Hot Compression Technique

Mahbub Hasan

This present chapter describes the manufacturing technique and properties of coir fibre-reinforced polypropylene composites manufactured using a hot press machine. The effects of basic chromium sulphate and sodium bicarbonate treatment on the physical and mechanical properties were also evaluated. Chemical treatment and fibre loading generally improved the mechanical properties. Five-hour basic chromium sulphate and sodium bicarbonate-treated coir-polypropylene had the best set of properties among all manufactured composites. Chemical treatment also improved water absorption characteristics. This proves that chemical treatment reduced the hydrophilicity of the coir fibre. Overall the hot compression technique was proved to be successful in manufacturing good quality coir reinforced polypropylene composites.

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Advanced Manufacturing: Polymer & Composites Science

Identification of the effect of typical curvatures encountered in RTM parts on localized permeability of fibrous preforms

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Elisabeth Mühlbachler

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RIFT Process Analysis for the Production of Green Composites in Flax Fibers and Bio-Based Epoxy Resin

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Methods for permeability measurements of fibrous reinforced preforms Métodos para determinar la permeabilidad de preformas reforzantes fibrosas

Carlos Andres Vargas Isaza

Permeability is a property used to measure how a liquid flows through porous media. This property defines how a mold is filled in Liquid Composite Molding (LCM). It is important to know the different methods used to measure permeability (scopes, advantages and disadvantages) since in some cases it is possible to obtain significant errors during the measurements. Therefore it is important to compare theoretical methods by experimental measurements. In this work, a review about different techniques used in the literature to determine the permeability of reinforcement materials was done. The review was done in order to provide a reference for future study and research in the field of processing and simulation of liquid composites molding reinforced with preforms.-Resumen La permeabilidad es la propiedad que determina la facilidad con la que un líquido fluye a través de un medio poroso. Esta variable determina, en el caso de procesos de moldeo líquido de compuestos (Liquid Composites Molding, LCM por sus siglas en Ingles), el patrón de llenado de moldes. Es importante conocer los diferentes métodos de medición de permeabilidad, sus alcances, ventajas y desventajas, ya que en algunos casos se pueden inducir errores considerables en la medición, por lo que es adecuado realizar una validación entre los métodos experimentales y teóricos. El presente artículo realiza una revisión y análisis de las diferentes técnicas establecidas para determinar la

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Optimizing Bladder Resin Transfer Molding Process to Manufacture Complex, Thin-Ply Thermoplastic Tubular Composite Structures: An Experimental Case Study

2021 •


The bladder molding process is primarily used in sporting applications but mostly with prepregs. Bladder-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (B-RTM) presents the tremendous potential to automate and mass produce the complex hollow-composite profiles. Thin-ply, non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) provide excellent mechanical, fracture toughness, and vibration damping properties on top of the weight saving it offers to a final product. However, these fiber architectures are difficult to inject due to the resistance they provide for the polymer flow using the liquid injection process. Therefore, it is mandatory to optimize the process parameters to reduce the time for injection and simultaneously achieve better consolidation. This work presents a first, detailed, experimental case study to successfully inject a low-permeability, thin-ply, complex, thermoplastic tubular structure, and the effect of process parameters, boundary conditions, the associated manufacturing challenges, and proposed solutions...

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Out-Of-Plane Permeability Evaluation of Carbon Fiber Preforms by Ultrasonic Wave Propagation

Francesca Lionetto

Out-of-plane permeability of reinforcement preforms is of crucial importance in the infusion of large and thick composite panels, but so far, there are no standard experimental methods for its determination. In this work, an experimental set-up for the measurement of unsaturated through thickness permeability based on the ultrasonic wave propagation in pulse echo mode is presented. A single ultrasonic transducer, working both as emitter and receiver of ultrasonic waves, was used to monitor the through thickness flow front during a vacuum assisted resin infusion experiment. The set-up was tested on three thick carbon fiber preforms, obtained by stacking thermal bonding of balanced or unidirectional plies either by automated fiber placement either by hand lay-up of unidirectional plies. The ultrasonic data were used to calculate unsaturated out-of-plane permeability using Darcy’s law. The permeability results were compared with saturated out-of-plane permeability, determined by a trad...

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Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Short Flax Fibers on the Permeability Behavior of a New Unidirectional Flax/Paper Composite (2024)


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